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Vous êtes ici : AccueilETUDESANGLAISThe Tenses of Verbs ( Les temps verbaux)
Verbes
No

One of the most important functions of the verb is to indicate the time at which an action takes place, whether someone or something is doing something, was doing something or will do something.
L'une des fonctions les plus importantes des verbes est d'indiquer l'heure à laquelle une action a lieu, quelqu'un chose est faite , quelque chose se fera.
There are several tenses in English. The major ones are present tense, past tense and future test, but there are other categories relating to these.
Il existe plusieurs temps en anglais. Les principaux sont le présent, le passé et du futur, mais il existe d'autres temps liés à ces derniers.

1. Present tense

The present tense indicates an action now going on or a state now existing, it shows a time of action or a state of being. It uses the base form, also known as the infinitive form, of the verb but it changes in the third person singular when it adds -s to the base form, sometimes with a spelling change
Le présent de l’indicatif indique une action en cours ou un état existant maintenant, Il utilise l'infinitif du verbe et change à la troisième personne du singulier en ajoutant un -s à l'infinitif, parfois avec aussi un changement d'orthographe.

There are two forms of the present tense, the simple present tense and the continuous present tense.
Il existe deux formes du présen de l'indicatift, le présent simple et le présent continu.

1.1 Simple present tense
The simple present tense is used to indicate an action that is currently going on.
Le présent simple est utilisé pour indiquer une action en cours.

Verb to work (travailler )
I work in the city. ( Je travaille en ville )
you work the city.
he, she, it works the city.
we work the city.
you work the city.
they work the city.

Verb to live (vivre )
I live by the sea. ( Je vis au bord de la mer )
you live by the sea.
he/she/it lives by the sea.
we live by the sea.
you live by the sea.
they live by the sea.

Verb to eat ( manger )
I eat vegetables. ( Je mange des légumes )
you eat vegetables.
he/she/it eats vegetables.
we eat vegetables.
you eat vegetables.
they eat vegetables.

The simple present tense is also used to indicate something that is always or generally true.
Le présent simple est également utilisé pour indiquer quelque chose qui est toujours ou généralement vrai.

Three and three make six. ( Trois plus trois font six )
Thin glass breaks easily. ( Le verre fin se brise facilement)
Tigers are carnivorous. ( Les tigres sont carnivores )

The simple present tense is also used to indicate an action that is regular or habitual.
Le présent simple est également utilisé pour indiquer une action régulière ou habituelle.

He drinks whisky. ( Il boit du whisky )
I work on Saturdays. ( Je travaille le samedi )
He drives a white van. ( Il conduit une camionnette blanche )

The simple present tense is also used with some adverbs or adverbials of time to refer to a time in the future.
Le présent simple est également utilisé avec certains adverbes de temps pour désigner un temps dans le futur.

They leave early. ( Ils partent tôt. )
The match begins in an hour. ( Le match commence dans une heure. )
I move next month.( Je déménage le mois prochain. )

1.2 Continuous present tense
The continuous present tense, also called the progressive present tense, is used when you are talking about something that is happening at the very moment when you are speaking or when you are referring to an action continuing over a period of time, including the present, and not complete at the time when you are referring to it.
Le présent continu, également appelé présent progressif, est utilisé lorsque vous parlez de quelque chose qui se passe au moment même où vous parlez ou lorsque vous faites référence à une action se poursuivant sur une période de temps, y compris le présent, et pas complet au moment où vous y faites référence.

This tense is formed using the present tense of the verb to be, is and are, and the present participle, ending in -ing of the main verb.
Ce temps est formé en utilisant le présent du verbe être, "is" et "are", et le participe présent, se terminant par -ing du verbe principal.

Verb to work
I  am working in the city. ( Je travaille en ville )
you are working the city.
he, she, it  is working the city.
we are working the city.
you are working the city.
they are  working the city.

Verb to live
I am living by the sea. ( Je vis au bord de la mer.)
you are living by the sea.
he/she/it is living by the sea.
we are living by the sea.
you are living by the sea.
they are living by the sea.

Verb to eat
I am eating vegetables. ( Je mange des légumes)
you are eating vegetables.
he/she/it is eating vegetables.
we are eating vegetables.
you are eating vegetables.
they are eating vegetables.

The continuous present tense is also used with some adverbs or adverbials of time to refer to a time in the future.
Le présent continu est également utilisé avec certains adverbes ou adverbiaux du temps pour désigner un temps dans le futur.

He is leaving next month.( Il part le mois prochain )
I am travelling tomorrow. ( Je voyage demain )
She is graduating next summer.( Elle obtient son diplôme l'été prochain )

2. Past tense

The past tense refers to an action that has taken place before the present time. In the case of regular verbs it is formed by adding -ed to the base or infinitive form of the verb.
Le passé fait référence à une action qui a eu lieu avant le temps présent. Dans le cas des verbes réguliers, il est formé en ajoutant -ed  à l'infinitif du verbe.

There are two forms of the past tense, the simple past tense and the continuous past tense.
Il existe deux formes du passé, le passé simple et le passé continu.

2.1 Simple past tense
The simple past tense is used to refer to an event or state that occurred at some point in the past.
Le passé simple est utilisé pour désigner un événement ou un état survenu à un moment donné dans le passé.

Verb to crack
I cracked the vase. ( J'ai cassé le vase )
you cracked the vase.
he, she, it cracked the vase.
we cracked the vase.
you cracked the vase.
they cracked the vase.

Verb to climb
I climbed the tree. ( J'ai grimpé à l'arbre )
you climbed the tree.
he/she/it climbed the tree.
we climbed the tree.
you climbed the tree.
they climbed the tree.

Verb to steal
I stole a car. ( J'ai volé une voiture)
you stole a car.
he/she/it stole a car.
we stole a car.
you stole a car.
they stole a car.

The simple past tense is also used to indicate a regular or repeated action in the Past.
Le passé simple est également utilisé pour indiquer une action régulière ou répétée dans le passé.

When I was a child we lived in the city. ( Quand j'étais enfant, nous vivions en ville.)
People drank very little alcohol in those days. ( Les gens buvaient très peu d'alcool à l'époque.)
The sun always shone when we were there. ( Le soleil brillait toujours quand nous y étions.)
As children we rode our ponies in the lanes around the village. ( Enfants, nous montions nos poneys dans les ruelles autour du village. )

2.2 Continuous past tense
The continuous past tense, also called the progressive past tense and the imperfect tense, is used to refer to a continuing action that happened in the past and is probably now complete.
  Le passé continu, également appelé le passé progressif et le temps imparfait, est utilisé pour désigner une action continue qui s'est produite dans le passé et qui est probablement maintenant terminée.

The continuous past tense is formed by using the past tense of the verb to be, was and were, and the present participle, ending in -ing, of the main verb,
Le passé continu est formé en utilisant le passé du verbe être, "was" et "were", et le participe présent, se terminant par -ing, du verbe principal,

Verb to work
I  was working in the city. ( Je travaillais en ville )
you were working the city.
he, she, it  was working the city.
we were working the city.
you were working the city.
they were  working the city.

Verb to live
I was living by the sea. ( Je vivais au bord de la mer)
you were living by the sea.
he/she/it was living by the sea.
we were living by the sea.
you were living by the sea.
they were living by the sea.

Verb to eat
I was eating vegetables. ( Je mangeais des légumes.)
you were eating vegetables.
he/she/it was eating vegetables.
we were eating vegetables.
you were eating vegetables.
they were eating vegetables.

The continuous past is also used to refer to an event in the past that occurred during the course of another event.

I was running down the hill when I tripped and fell.
You were risking your lives when you did that.
We were driving home when the car broke down.

3. Perfect tense

The present perfect tense, also known as the perfect tense, is another tense which refers to the past. It is formed using the present tense of the verb have and the past participle of the main verb.
It is used to refer to an action that began in the past but continues into the present time or to refer to an action in the past which has results continuing to the present.

Verb to work
I have worked in the city.
you have worked the city.
he, she, it has worked the city.
we have worked the city.
you have worked the city.
they have worked the city.

Verb to live
I have lived by the sea.
you have lived by the sea.
he/she/it has lived by the sea.
we have lived by the sea.
you have lived by the sea.
they have lived by the sea.

Verb to eat
I have eaten vegetables.
you have eaten vegetables.
he/she/it has eaten vegetables.
we have eaten vegetables.
you have eaten vegetables.
they have eaten vegetables.

3.1 Continuous present perfect tense
The present perfect tense also exists in a continuous or progressive form indicating an action in the past that is still going on.
Le "present perfect" existe également sous une forme continue ou progressive indiquant une action dans le passé qui est toujours en cours.

They have been studying the results carefully. ( Ils ont étudié attentivement les résultats)
Our projects have been developing quite slowly because of lack of funding. ( Nos projets se développent assez lentement en raison du manque de financement.)
You have been staring out of the window for hours. ( Vous avez regardé par la fenêtre pendant des heures.)

3.2 Past perfect tense
The past perfect tense, also known as the pluperfect tense, also refers to the past. It is formed using the past tense of the verb have and the past participle of the main verb.
Le "past perfect " également connu sous le nom de "pluperfect tense ", fait également référence au passé. Il est formé en utilisant le passé du verbe " to have" et le participe passé du verbe principal.

We had discussed the matter in detail. ( Nous avions discuté de la question en détail. )

The past perfect tense is used to refer to a past action that took place at an earlier time than another action, there sometimes being a causal link between the events,
Le : past perfect " est utilisé pour désigner une action passée qui a eu lieu plus tôt qu'une autre action, il existe parfois un lien de causalité entre les événements,

She went round to see him after she had received his message. ( Elle est allée le voir après avoir reçu son message.)

It is also used to refer to an action that continues right up to, or relates to, a single point in the past
Il est également utilisé pour faire référence à une action qui se poursuit jusqu'à, ou se rapporte à un seul point dans le passé

By the end of the year the project had been abandoned. ( À la fin de l'année, le projet avait été abandonné. )

The past perfect tense also exists in a continuous or progressive form.

They had been hoping that we would fail. ( Ils avaient espéré que nous échouerions. )
It was clear that she had been contemplating leaving. ( Il était clair qu'elle envisageait de partir. )
You had obviously been thinking of emigrating, although you did not. ( Vous aviez manifestement pensé à émigrer, mais pas. )

4. Future tense

The future tense describes an action or state that will occur at some point in the future. The future tense is formed by using will or shall with the infinitive form of the main verb. It is used to predict or say what is likely to happen in the future.
Le futur décrit une action ou un état qui se produira à un moment donné dans le futur. Le futur est formé en utilisant will ou shall avec la forme infinitive du verbe principal. Il est utilisé pour prédire ou dire ce qui est susceptible de se produire à l'avenir.

Verb to work
I will work in the city. ( Je travaillerai dans la ville.)
you will work the city.
he, she, it will work the city.
we will work the city.
you will work the city.
they will work the city.

Verb to live
I will live by the sea. ( Je vivrai au bord de la mer. )
you will live by the sea.
he/she/it will live by the sea.
we will ive by the sea.
you wii live by the sea.
they wii live by the sea.

Verb to eat
I will eat vegetables. ( je mangerai des légumes)
you will eat vegetables.
he/she/it will eat vegetables.
we will eat vegetables.
you will eat vegetables.
they will eat vegetables.

In modern usage things have changed and, increasingly, will is the preferred form in most modern contexts, whether these be spoken or written contexts, in all but the most formal. The only exception to this is the use of shall as used with I and we when questions are being asked, and, even then, this is a fairly formal context.
Dans l'usage moderne, les choses ont changé et, de plus en plus, "will" est la forme préférée dans la plupart des contextes modernes, qu'il s'agisse de contextes parlés ou écrits, dans tous les contextes sauf le plus formel. Ainsi "shall" est exclusivement utilisé à la première personne du singulier et du pluriel pour poser une question.

Shall we proceed? ( Allons-nous continuer? )
Shall I go on? ( Dois-je continuer? )
Shall we postpone the meeting until next week? ( Pouvons-nous reporter la réunion à la semaine prochaine? )
Shall I reserve a room for you? ( Dois-je vous réserver une chambre? )

The continuous future tense is used to refer to a future action. It is formed by using will be or shall be followed by the present participle of the main verb, often in a contracted form.
Le "continuous future tense " est utilisé pour désigner une action future. Il est formé en utilisant "will" ou "shall" suivi du participe présent du verbe principal, souvent sous une forme contractée,

 I will be working late tonight and I’ll be announcing the date of the exam tomorrow. ( Je travaillerai tard ce soir et j'annoncerai la date de l'examen demain. )

The continuous future tense is used to describe an action that will, or is likely to, take place in the future but emphasizing that the action will go on over a period of time, or to refer events that have been planned or arranged for the future.
Le futur continu est utilisé pour décrire une action qui aura lieu, ou est susceptible d'avoir lieu dans le futur, mais en insistant sur le fait que l'action se poursuivra sur une période de temps, ou pour faire référence à des événements qui ont été planifiés ou arrangés pour l'avenir.

He will be reporting the matter to the police. ( Il signalera l'affaire à la police. )
The bus will be changing routes from tomorrow. ( Le bus changera d'itinéraire à partir de demain.)

The future perfect tense is formed by using will have or shall have followed by the past participle of the main verb. It is used to predict that a future action will be completed by a particular time or to make deductions. Le " future perfect tense " est formé en utilisant "will have" ou "shall have" suivi du participe passé du verbe principal. Il est utilisé pour prédire qu'une action future sera terminée à un moment donné ou pour faire des déductions

The decorators will have finished the room by this evening. ( Les décorateurs auront terminé la salle d'ici ce soir)

The future perfect continuous tense is used to refer to an action that will have been completed at a point in the future, emphasizing that the action will have been continuing over a period of time.
Le "futur perfect continuous tense" est utilisé pour désigner une action qui aura été achevée à un moment donné dans le futur, soulignant que l'action se sera poursuivie sur une période de temps.

Many people will have been saving for years for this trip. ( Beaucoup de gens auront économisé depuis des années pour ce voyage. )
Students will have been studying this text for weeks without realizing that it is the wrong one. ( Les étudiants auront étudié ce texte depuis des semaines sans se rendre compte que ce n'est pas le bon. )